Today we have brought for you the Charak Samhita book Charak Samhita in Hindi by Maharishi Charak. This is the oldest and authentic text of Ayurveda available. Charaka Samhita is also the world’s first book, in which the mention of preventive and curative drugs is found. In this article, you will be able to read in detail about Charak Biography in Hindi and Charak Samhita Hindi translation (Charak Ayurveda Book in Hindi).
Charak Biography in Hindi & Charak Samhita
Maharshi Charak is the first physician who introduced the concepts of digestion, metabolism and body immunity to the world. He explained that due to the function of the body, three permanent doshas are found in it, which are known as Pitta, Kapha and Vayu. As long as these three doshas remain in a balanced state in the body, the person remains healthy. But as soon as their balance is disturbed, the person becomes ill. Therefore, in order to make the body healthy, it is necessary to recognize this imbalance and bring it back to its former state. That is why he is also called the Father of Medicine / Father Of Ayurveda / Father Of Modern Ayurveda.
Not only in India but all over the world, Charak is known as a Maharishi and Ayurveda scholar. He edited the major treatise of Ayurveda ‘Charak Samhita’, which is the first authentic available text of Ayurveda, which mentions prophylactic and curative drugs. Along with this, ashes made from metals like gold, silver, iron, mercury etc. and the method of their use have been told. Some people mistakenly describe Acharya Charak as the creator of ‘Charak Samhita’, but the reality is that after editing the ‘Agnivesh Tantra’ composed by Acharya Agnivesh, he gave it a new look by adding some places and chapters to it. This revised and enhanced version of ‘Agnivesh Tantra’ was later known as ‘Charak Sanhita’.
History of Ayurveda Ayurveda History in Hindi
In Indian culture, Brahma is considered the creator of the universe. It is said that Brahma created humans. When human beings were born, various diseases were also born with them. To deal with those diseases, Brahma first gave the knowledge of Ayurveda to Prajapit. This knowledge from Prajapati reached the Ashwini Kumars. In the Vedic literature, many stories are read about the miraculous treatment of Ashwini Kumars. Devaraj Indra acquired the knowledge of Ayurveda, being overwhelmed by the knowledge of Ashwini Kumars.
According to Charak Samhita book (Charak Samhita in Hindi), once there was an outbreak of many epidemics on the earth. Worried about this, all the sages called a meeting in the foothills of the Himalayas. In this meeting Asit, Agastya, Angira, Asvarathya, Ashvalayana, Atreya, Kashyapa, Kapinjal, Kushika, Kankayana, Kaikasheya, Jamadagni, Vasistha, Bhrigu, Atreya, Gautama, Sankhya, Pulatsya, Narada, Vamadeva, Markandeya, Maitreya, Bharadvaja , Vishwamitra, Bhargava, Chyayan, Abhijit, Gargya, Shandilya, Kaundinya, Varakshi, Deval, Mamtayani, Vaikhanasagan, Galav, Vaijvapi, Badrayana, Badish, Sharloma, Kapya, Katyayan, Dhaumya, Marichi, Kashyapa, Sharkaksha, Hiranyaksha, Panaji, Shaunakshi, Shakuney, The sages Sankritya and Valakhilyagan etc. participated. In the meeting, Bharadwaj was unanimously elected as the leader and sent to Indra to get rid of diseases. Indra gave all the knowledge of Ayurveda to the sage Bharadwaj. Later Bharadwaja introduced this important knowledge to his disciple Atreya Punarvasu.
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Atreya Punarvasu had six disciples – Agnivesha, Bhel, Jatukarna, Parashara, Harit and Ksharpani. Later these disciples composed Ayurveda texts according to their respective talents. Most of these collected the knowledge of Atreya and modified them to some extent. Agnivesh was a special genius among all these disciples of Atreya. The texts collected by him were later known as ‘Charak Samhita’. Since Agnivesh was the author of Charak Samhita, hence he is also known as ‘Agnivesha Samhita’.
Charak’s biography (Charak Biography in Hindi) is a subject of great research. When Charak was born, where he was born, there is no description of it in history. In the Chinese translation of Tripitaka, Charaka is introduced as Kanishka’s royal physician. But the point to be noted is that Kanishka was a Buddhist king and his poet Asvaghosha was also a Buddhist. But Buddhism has been strongly refuted in Charaka Samhita. This proves it wrong that Charaka was Kanishka’s physician. But scholars interpret this statement in such a way that Charaka must have lived in the time of Kanishya. North India is mentioned in many places in Charaka Samhita. This proves that Charaka must have been a resident of North India. Unfortunately, apart from this, there is no other authentic information available about Charak.
Bhardwaj, Punarvasu and Agnivesha have been considered as authentic people in the historical story of the development of Ayurveda. There is a mention of a famous physician named Jivaka in the state of Magadha during the time of Lord Buddha. There is evidence that Charaka went to Taxila to study Ayurveda. There he received the initiation of Ayurveda from Acharya Atreya. From this it can be said that Atreya-Punarvasu probably happened about two and a half thousand years ago from today. It also means that Charaka happened about two and a half thousand years ago from today.
Charaka Samhita is the oldest and most authentic text of Ayurveda available. It is written in Sanskrit language. It is written in the beginning of each chapter – ‘Lord Atreya said thus.’ At the end of some of its chapters it is told that ‘this tantra i.e. scripture was prepared by Acharya Agnivesh, Charaka edited it and Dharmbala completed it.’ It is clear from this that the teachings of sage Atreya have been collected in this book. Agnivesha made it a text, Charaka revised it and Dharmbala added some chapters to it. But later on it came to be known as ‘Charak Samhita’, so there was confusion among people that it was the creation of Charaka.
Why this composition was called Charaka Samhita, scholars argue that there have been many people named Charaka in our country. It may be that in the disciple tradition of Agnivesha, a disciple named Charaka had spread it a lot, hence the name Charaka Samhita. While some scholars are of the opinion that the disciples of Agnivesha used to go from one place to another to treat the patients. It must have been named ‘Charak’ due to his continuous movement.
Some words in Charaka Samhita are found in Pali language, such as Avakranti, Jentak (Jantaka-Vinayapitaka), Bhangodana, Khuddak, Bhootdhatri (for sleep). On this basis, some scholars consider its precepts to be after the Upanishads and before the Buddha. They also believe that it was reciprocated in the time of Kanishka i.e. around 78 AD.
Charaka Samhita is composed in Sanskrit language. It is written in prose and verse. It is divided into eight stanzas (parts) and 120 chapters. The eight places of Charak Samhita Charak Samhita are as follows:
1. Sutrasthan: In this section, medicine, diet, diet, special diseases and treatment of physical and mental diseases have been described.
2. Nidanasthana: The process of finding out the cause of diseases in Ayurveda system is called Nidan. In this section, information about major diseases and their treatment is provided.
3. Airports: In this chapter the relationship between food and the body is shown and information about healthy food is provided.
4. Anatomy: The composition of the human body has been introduced in detail in this section. The process of birth and development of a child in the womb is also described in this section.
5. Indriyasthan: This section basically focuses on the nature of diseases and its treatment.
6. Medical Center: Some important diseases are described in this episode. Information about how to identify those diseases and what are the important methods of their treatment is also given.
7. These are relatively short chapters, which deal with common diseases.
Charaka Samhita is the most important work of Ayurveda. In this book, description of foreign races like Chinese, Yemen, Pahlava, Shaka, Vahlik etc. is found and their food and drink have also been mentioned. It has been translated into many foreign languages. The famous Arab scholar Al-Biruni has written about it – ‘There is a book of the Hindus, which is famous by the name of Charak. This medicine is considered to be the best book of science.
Charaka had made a deep study of the anatomy of humans. He is considered to be knowledgeable about the basic principles of genetics. He categorically believed that the genetic defects in children like blindness, lameness, physical deformity etc. were not due to any absence of their parents, but because of their sperm and egg.
Charaka has given the total number of bones including teeth in the human body as 360. He considered the heart to be the control center of the body. He also told that the heart is connected to the body by 13 main arteries. He also knew that in addition to this, there are hundreds of small and big arteries in the body, which carry food juices to the tissues and perform the function of excreting waste and waste materials out of the body.
Charaka has said in relation to medicine and health – ‘The doctor who does not understand the patient’s body by taking the lamp of his knowledge and understanding, how can he cure the disease. The doctor should first study all the factors that affect the patient. Thereafter he should be treated. Although this statement is a common thing today, it was a revolutionary idea 20 centuries ago, which played an important role in understanding the relationship between disease and health around the world.
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